Utah Archaeology 1994, Volume 7, Number 1
CONTENTS OF ISSUE
- Message from the Editors by Kevin T. Jones and Robert B. Kohl
ARTICLES AND REPORTS
- Cowboy Cave Revisited by Alan R. Schroedl and Nancy J. Coulam
Cowboy Cave, a stratified Archaic cave site in southeastern Utah, has been a cornerstone in defining the Archaic occupational chronology of the Colorado Plateau. A review of the radiocarbon dates in relation to published artifact descriptions and unpublished feature data allow for a clarification of the site stratigraphy and sequence of occupation. Prehistoric occupation in Cowboy Cave was restricted to three periods, the Early Archaic, the Late Archaic, and the Terminal Archaic, each with a constellation of diagnostic artifacts. Although the site functioned primarily as a spring/summer seed processing locale, for a short period during the Early Archaic, it also functioned as a winter base camp. Some general observations about cave site excavations on the Colorado Plateau are also presented.
- From Here To Antiquity: Holocene Human Occupation on Camels Back Ridge, Tooele County, Utah by Dave N. Schmitt, Monson, W. Shaver III, and Jeffrey M. Hunt
The results of limited archaeological investigations at an open lithic scatter and neighboring cave on Camels Back Ridge are presented. The location of nearby remnant features of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville suggests that Camels Back Ridge was accessible during the latter part of the post-Provo regression approximately 13,000 B.P. Basalt artifacts recovered from the lithic scatter may signal a Paleoindian occupation, and artifact types and radiocarbon analyses indicate that the cave was occupied periodically from ca. 7,500 B.P. through the Fremont Period. Given their setting, antiquity, and the presence of occupation surfaces in the cave, the sites offer a unique opportunity to investigate the types and distribution of artifacts and ecofacts spanning 7,500 years of intermittent occupation in an uncharitable desert environment.
- Fremont Settlement and Subsistence Practices in Skull Valley, Northern Utah by Shelley J. Smith
Excavations were conducted at 42T0504, a small site in Skull Valley, northern Utah, which dates to the Early/Mid Fremont time period. Situated on a long dune-like feature, the site contains evidence of an ephemeral brush structure, shallow pits, and a suite of nested clay-lined pits. Fremont pottery, corn, ground and flaked lithics, fire altered rock, and daub fragments were recovered. The site is interpreted to be a locus for late-summer/early fall seed gathering by small mobile groups of people who had access to corn, either through trade or part-time horticulture. The environment, probably locally moister than today, resulted in perennial water in the playa adjacent to the site. 42T0504 represents another example of Fremont subsistence and settlement diversity.
- Archaeological Salvage Investigations at a Fremont Site in the Jordan River Delta by Dave N. Schmitt, Steven R. Simms, and Gabrielle P. Woodbury
Salvage excavations at site 42SL197 in west Salt Lake City retrieved stone tools, butchered bison bone, ceramics, and human skeletal remains. Although the deposits had been disturbed by recent construction activities, recovered artifacts and ecofacts, and human bone analyses provide some useful information on human subsistence and settlement. Radiocarbon analyses of human bone collagen indicate that the site witnessed at least two occupations during the Fremont Period, and stable carbon isotope studies suggest that domesticates comprised a portion of the diet. Site content and context suggest that 42SL197 represents a farming base or habitation site tied to a larger horticultural complex.
- Probable Metastatic Carcinoma in a Prehistoric Great Basin Skeleton by Carol J. Loveland and John B. Gregg
A 30–35 year old female recovered in 1990 from site 42WB48, Weber County, Utah, was carbon-dated at 1020±70 B.P. Major portions of the skeleton proximal to the elbows and knees exhibited destructive lesions suggestive of metastatic carcinoma (cancer). Likely sources of the primary tumor are discussed. This remarkable anomaly, rare in ancient populations, establishes the possible presence of certain diseases in the prehistoric Great Basin.
- A Biface Cache from 42BO796 in Northwestern Utah byRoy Macpherson
A cache of ten complete and three fragmentary chert bifaces was found during a BLM archaeological survey in northwestern Utah. The ellipsoidal-shaped bifaces were knapped from white to gray chert and had a mean size of 10.3 cm by 5.8 cm by 1.6 cm thick. The bifaces were found within a larger site, 42B0796. This paper reports details on the bifaces including site location and setting, archaeology of the area, cache description and characteristics, a comparison of this cache to others, and some interpretive comments.
- Aspects of the Virgin Anasazi Tradition in the Grand Canyon by Robert C. Euler
When viewed from Grand Canyon on the southern boundary of the Virgin Tradition, there appear to have been slight differences between them and those of the Kayenta Tradition between A.D. 1100–1150. While architectural differences are notable, ceramic variations are not always easy to discern. This paper suggests that sites of the Virgin Tradition are not generally found east of Kanab Canyon, but attempts to establish fixed boundaries are not intellectually productive.
- The Pectol/Lee Collection, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah by Lee Ann Kreutzer
Recovered by local collectors in the early decades of this century, the archeological museu holdings of Capitol Reef National Park are mostly without provenience or other documentation. Nevertheless, they are a significant resource that may be useful to researchers studying the Fremont and later occupations. The complex story of the artifacts’ history, their local, family, and Mormon religious significance, of NAGPRA compliance issues, and of the likely loss of the entire collection from public domain raises a number of issues pertinent to archeology, social history, and museum studies alike. Collection history and a small part of the collection are described here.
- The Prehistoric Baskets from the Leo C. Thorne Collection, Part 1 by C. Lawrence DeVed and Rhoda Thorne DeVed
The following descriptions and accompanying photographs of baskets from the Leo Thorne collection by C. Lawrence and Rhoda Thorne DeVed are an important contribution to knowledge of basketry from in and around the Uinta Basin. Archaeologists have known about the collection for some time and have been anxious to learn more about the extraordinarily diverse basketry.
- After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America, reviewed by Robert B. Kohl
- The Mythology of North America, reviewed by Robert B. Kohl
- Native American Myths and Legends, reviewed by Robert B. Kohl
- Creations Journey—Native American Identity and Belief, reviewed by Robert B. Kohl
- In the Shadow of Fox Peak; an Ethnography of the Cattail-Eater Northern Paiute, review by Robert G. Elston