Utah Archaeology 1996, Volume 9, Number 1
CONTENTS OF ISSUE
ARTICLES AND REPORTS
- Virgin Anasazi Settlement and Adaptation on the Grand Staircase by Douglas A. McFadden
The Virgin Anasazi, although generally considered to be a single cultural entity, occupied a number of discrete geographical areas in southern Utah, northern Arizona and southern Nevada. One of the more varied and distinctive was the Grand Staircase section of the Colorado Plateau (Stokes 1977). Settlement data, based on recent intensive inventories, is presented and analyzed in terms of local adaptation to the Grand Staircase environment. High densities of architectural sites are located in a variety of different arable settings between 5,000 ft and 7,000 ft (1524 m to 2134 m) - the zone of prehistoric agriculture. These site clusters are interpreted to be dispersed communities that were occupied, probably discontinuously, from the early Basketmaker period into Pueblo III times. On the level of the individual site, Virgin architectural layouts and internal structure reflect a tendency to be complex and long lived; they were however, frequently abandoned and reoccupied. Rather than separate and unrelated occupations, these episodes are demonstrated to be part of the Virgin settlement pattern. It is suggested that this unique “Virgin pattern” reflects a specialized adaptation to the Grand Staircase. A model of residential mobility is proposed as a formal strategy that permitted shifting between multiple agricultural locales in response to climate change.
- AMS Dating of Plain-Weave Sandals from the Central Colorado Plateau by Phil R. Geib
AMS radiocarbon dates on plain-weave sandals from caves of the central Colorado Plateau are reported. The sandals range in age from about 6900 to 3200 B.P. (ca. 5700-1450 cal. B.C.). The findings strengthen a case for both population and cultural continuity during the Archaic period, and support a related argument that middle Archaic breaks in the occupancy of several important shelters such as Cowboy Cave resulted from settlement pattern change and not regional abandonment. The dates demonstrate that living accumulations within some shelters of lower Glen Canyon resulted from Archaic foragers and not Puebloan farmers as previously claimed. Benchmark Cave, in particular, emerges as a site with an important record of hunter-gatherer occupancy during the middle and late Archaic.
- The Hell’n Moriah Clovis Site by William E. Davis, Dorothy Sack, and Nancy Shearin
Site 42MD1067 is a single component Clovis site which represents a retooling station where projectile points were manufactured, and broken projectile points were replaced or resharpened. The site is located at what for a time was the southern margin of the regressive lake in Tule Valley near the end of and shortly after the Bonneville lake cycle. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence indicate that the most environmentally attractive period in prehistory for human exploitation in the general site area was between 13,950 and 10,000 yr B.P. During this period, resources associated with Lake Tule and with adjacent wetland/marsh environments would have been within close proximity to the site.
- Some Prehistoric Holes along Cliff and Cub Creeks, and at Dead Horse Spring, Uintah County, Utah by C. Lawrence DeVed and Rhoda Thorne DeVed
In north eastern Utah there are few sites, except the numerous rock art panels, where a person can go and see something in place that the prehistoric peoples made and used. These “Indian holes” are such a feature, and we shall describe a few of them so that interested persons may try to located them. No attempt is being made to locate all of the sites in even the limited area discussed. For this report we discuss two types of sites with holes that can be identified—those called pattern sites—where clusters of holes seem to form a pattern that may have meaning, and individual holes that, though not always solitary, do not seem to have any sort of meaningful pattern.
- Antiquities Section, Utah Division of State History, List of Reports with 1996 Project Numbers Assigned by Evelyn Seelinger
All organizations who conduct archaeological projects in the states are obliged to: (1) obtain a project number from the Antiquities Section, Division of State History and (2) submit a report on the work done. The following is a list of project numbers assigned by the Antiquities Section for projects with 1996 project numbers.
- Adventures in Stone Artifacts: A Family Guide to Arrowheads and Other Artifacts, reviewed by Ronald J. Rood
- Steinaker Gap: An Early Fremont Farmstead, reviewed by Ronald J. Rood