Utah Archaeology 1997, Volume 10, Number 1
CONTENTS OF ISSUE
- Jesse D. Jennings by Kevin T. Jones
ARTICLES AND REPORTS
- Winter Cattail Collecting Experiments by David B. Madsen, Lee Eschler, and Trevor Eschler
Cattail (Typha latifolia) rhizomes and shoots were experimentally collected and processed during late winter (January through mid-March) to examine their utility as winter food resource. Shoots are readily collected from warm water springs, but are generally inaccessible where marshes are frozen. They produce return rates of 500-600 Cals/hr., but are bulky and were most likely used as a dietary supplement. Cattail rhizomes were easily collected in fields by using a digging stick to pry off 6-12 inches of frozen soil above the rhizomes. The starch content of the rhizomes is at its highest from late fall until early spring when it begins to support new growth. Processing which employs simple mashing and boiling techniques produces return rates of 3000-4000 Cals/hr. When combined with other experimental data, the return rate range for cattail rhizomes is 200-5000 Cals/hr. Increasing experimental data indicate wide return rate ranges are a common characteristic of many food resources, suggesting the need for caution in applying diet breadth models in archaeological situations.
- The Escalante Game Drive Site by Alan D. Reed
The Escalante Game Drive site (5DT192) is along the Gunnison River valley in west-central Colorado. Investigations at the site by the Chipeta Chapter of the Colorado Archaeological Society have documented at least 27 cultural features thought to represent components of a game drive system, as well as a broad scatter of stone and Euroamerican artifacts. Chipeta Chapter members conducted limited excavations at the site to salvage two prehistoric hearths threatened by erosion, resulting in the identification of two Late Prehistoric period components. The association between the hearths and the game drive features is unclear. Game drive features include stacked rock and brush fences, as well as circular enclosures thought to represent blinds. Through consideration of the site’s topographic setting and the distribution of game drive features, a model of prehistoric game driving at the site is constructed. Game drive systems have been reported in low frequencies in Utah and Colorado, primarily in areas characterized by relatively high game populations, considerable local relief, and low vegetation.
- A Comparison of Human Skeletal Remains from Virgin Anasazi, Kayenta Anasazi, and Parowan Fremont Archaeological Sites by Heidi Roberts
Human skeletal remains from archaeological sites representing three prehistoric cultural traditions, the Virgin Anasazi, the Kayenta Anasazi, and the Parowan Fremont, were examined. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of differences in the skeletal remains of the 125 individuals studied. Statistical comparisons of stature, robusticity, and cranial measurements show no statistically significant differences in skeletal metric traits. Preliminary results of the comparison of nonmetric traits show that Virgin Anasazi cranial nonmetric traits are more similar to a Mogollon series studied by Birkby (1973) than to the Parowan Fremont series. Paleopathological conditions were also compared. While most individuals in the three series were healthy, the prevalence of periostitis, osteitis, and dental hypoplasia was found to be highest among the Virgin Anasazi individuals. Two other pathological conditions frequently associated with iron deficiency anemia—porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia—were most common among the Kayenta individuals and the least prevalent among the Parowan Fremont.
- Steward Alcove: A Case of Superposition Dating of Barrier Canyon Style Rock Art by Nancy Coulam and Alan R. Schroedl
Pinus edulis needles adhering to a Barrier Canyon Style anthropomorph in southeastern Utah produced a radiocarbon date with a two-sigma calibrated range of A.D. 1400–1655. Because the sample was superposed over the pictograph, the pictograph must have been created before this date, perhaps as much as several hundred or even a thousand years earlier, The investigation of other cases of superposition could help shed light on the date range of the Barrier Canyon and other styles of rock art.
- Antiquities Section, Utah Division of State History, List of Reports with 1997 Project Numbers Assigned by Evelyn Seelinger
All organizations who conduct archaeological projects in the state are obliged to: (1) obtain a project number from the Antiquities Section, Division of State History and (2) submit a report on the work done. The following is a list of project numbers assigned by the Antiquities Section for projects with 1997 project numbers.