Utah Archaeology 2002, Volume 15, Number 1
CONTENTS OF ISSUE
- Message from the Editors by Steen Simms and David Jabusch
SPECIAL DISCUSSION FEATURE
- The Link Between the Fremont and Modern Times by Nancy J. Coulam and Steven R. Simms
The lead article in this issue of Utah Archaeology “Fremont Basketry,” by James Adovasio, David Pedler, and Jeff Illingworth, anchors a discussion with a dual purpose. The synthesis of decades of study directed at Fremont basketry will be useful for readers who seek understanding of the Fremont from as many vantages as possible. The article is clearly written and illustrated, and the frank exposition enables the perspective, problem emphasis, and conclusions of the authors to be placed in the context of the literature on the Fremont. There is however, a second purpose for this publication. The study of Fremont basketry is one of five reports prepared for the United States Bureau of Reclamation as part of a comprehensive evaluation of the cultural affiliation of Fremont in relationship to modern Native American tribes. Reclamation is charged with this task under the Native American Graves Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA). The study of Fremont basketry that appears here, as well as the other reports commissioned by Reclamation, illustrate that when it comes to human remains and cultural heritage, the past is with us in the present and some of the questions asked of scientists are shaped by current legal and political climates. Adovasio, Pedler, and Illingworth’s article is followed by a discussion. Catherine Fowler and Joyce Herold raise observations about the article and the relationship between NAGPRA and anthropological study. The authors then take their opportunity to reply. Finally, Forrest Cuch, Director of the Utah Division of Indian Affairs and Kevin Jones, State Archaeologist with the Utah Division of State History, were invited to contribute concluding insights from their unique vantage within state government.
- Fremont Basketry by James M. Adavasio, David R. Pedler, and Jeff S. Illingworth
- Comments on “Fremont Basketry” By J.M. Adovasio, D.R. Pedler, and J.S. Illingworth by Catherine S. Fowler
- Commentary on “Fremont Basketry” by Joyce Herold
- Reply to Coulam & Simms, Fowler, and Herold by J.M. Adovasio, D.R. Pedler, and J.S. Illingworth
- Concluding Comments: Science, NAGPRA, Law and Public Policy by Kevin T. Jones
- Paleoindian Point Types of Northern Utah by Dann J. Russell and Mark E. Stuart
Northern Utah residents have recovered a wide variety of Paleoindian and Paleoarchaic point types that belong to periods ranging from over 12,000 to 7000 B.P. or later. Some of these points have been documented individually (Russell 1993), but a collective grouping to describe and provide general provenience for them, as well as to present good-quality photographs seems appropriate. We organize the descriptions and photographs by point type, beginning with the earliest, and by the locality of finds. All of the specimens reported here were found on the surface. None of the sites or individual specimens is dated, either directly or through site context However, age ranges are known for the types based on dates from sites in other regions, especially the Plains, and we report those age ranges in radiocarbon years (Pitblado 2003), we also include descriptions and photographs of some unknown types in the hope that better documentation of variability in what may be early points may improve the typologies.
- Institutional Constraints on Social and Economic Fluidity in Farmer-Forager Systems: Bioarchaeology and the Sexual Division of Labor in Prehistoric Utah by Jason Bright
The Formative period in the eastern Great Basin is marked by considerable economic and social variation, as individuals cycled in and out of farming modes. Such cycling may have been difficult, because the two economic options include contrasting social institutions that may clash, and therefore inhibit change. The sexual division of labor is one such institution that may vary between the two ends of the subsistence cycle. However, bioarchaeological data suggest that men and women were able to maintain broad similarities in the sexual division of labor, whether farming or foraging. Being able to maintain their interests in this regard across the economic spectrum loosened social constraints to switching and facilitated economic cycling.
- Settlement Location as a Reflection of Economic Strategies by the Late Prehistoric Fishermen of Utah Lake by Michelle K. Knoll
While most central place foraging models focus on caloric return as a quantifiable currency, other viable currencies should be considered as well. One alternative proposed is storability, which was likely an important attribute for those who practiced collection strategies, and may have been a quality that was actively sought after in potential food. This paper examines the relationship between storability of fish, fish spawning habitats, and settlement location at five sites surrounding Utah Lake. Archaeological evidence shows that the Late Prehistoric occupants at these sites procured storable species in greater frequency than non-storable species, and that their residential camps were always located in close proximity to preferred spawning habitats of storable fish.
- Oranjeboom Cave: A Single Component Eastgate Site in Northeastern Nevada by Paul Buck, Bryan Hockett, Kelly Graf, Ted Goebel, Gene Griego, Laureen Perry, and Eric Dillingham
Excavations in Oranjeboom Cave (26EK1722) in northeastern Nevada near the Utah border reveal a single component site containing Eastgate points and Great Salt Lake grayware sherds. The central feature of this site is a prepared living surface covered with stripped juniper bark matting and an single-use hearth. Calibrated 2-sigma radiocarbon dates place use of the site at about 1100–970 B.P., reflecting a single short term event. Faunal remains indicate preparation and consumption of bison and other large-to-medium sized mammals. The lithic assemblage is dominated by broken bifaces and abundant small pressure flakes, suggesting tool kit repair. Pine and juniper were used as fuel, and food remains include goosefoot, pine nuts, and juniper berries. The assemblage from Oranjeboom Cave shows that Fremont foragers using bows and arrows were exploiting areas west of the Bonneville Basin by at least 970 B.P.
THE AVOCATIONALIST’S CORNER
- Burnt Station: What Really Happened in Overland Canyon* by David M. Jabusch, Susan Jabusch, and Melvin Brewster
Here we report an integration of our field investigations with historical accounts about Overland Canyon Stage from approximately 1859 to 1869. Although these stations seem relatively insignificant along the Pony Express and Overland Stage route, Overland Canyon was the focus of troubles with Paiute and Goshute Indians during this period. In this study we build upon our previous research, and in particular use archaeological survey to sort out the sometimes conflicting historical accounts regarding the location and construction of these stations, as well as the horrible events that happened at one of them.
- Canyoneering 3, reviewed by Lisa Westwood
- Singing Stone: A Natural History of the Escalante Canyon, reviewed by Lisa Westwood